Aleksandr Oks, Aleksey Katashev, Edgars Bernans, Valters Abolins

Last modified: 01.06.2017


The aim of present study was to demonstrate usability of the recently developed “Smart Socks” System for analysis of locomotion temporal parameters. Smart socks system exploits pressure sensors which can be knitted directly in the garment, thus providing minimal discomfort for user. Two types of locomotion were analysed: walking and running. Experienced athletes took part in the experiment to perform movements in the controlled conditions in laboratory. The research demonstrated that temporal accuracy of Smart Sock system is acceptable for practical purposes. Data, provided by the system could distinguish heel strike and non-heel strike  run and walk modes. More data is required for deeper analysis and interpretation of obtained temporal parameters and for development of recommendations for athletes and coaches.


smart socks; running; walking; biomechanics


[1] Cavanagh, P. R., & Lafortune, M. A. Ground reaction forces in distance running. Journal of biomechanics, 13(5), 1980, pp 397-406.

[2] Crowell, H. P., Milner, C. E., Hamill, J., & Davis, I. S.  Reducing impact loading during running with the use of real-time visual feedback. journal of orthopaedic & sports physical therapy, 40(4), 2010, 206-213.

[3] Daoud, A. I., Geissler, G. J., Wang, F., Saretsky, J., Daoud, Y. A., & Lieberman, D. E.. Foot strike and injury rates in endurance runners: a retrospective study. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 44(7), 2012, 1325-1334.

[4] Fellin, R. E., Rose, W. C., Royer, T. D., & Davis, I. S. Comparison of methods for kinematic identification of footstrike and toe-off during overground and treadmill running. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 13(6), 2010, 646-650.

[5] Giandolini, M., Poupard, T., Gimenez, P., Horvais, N., Millet, G. Y., Morin, J. B., & Samozino, P.. A simple field method to identify foot strike pattern during running. Journal of biomechanics, 47(7), 2014, pp 1588-1593. ISO 690.

[6] Gregg, R. D., Dhaher, Y. Y., Degani, A., & Lynch, K. On the mechanics of functional asymmetry in bipedal walking. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, 59(5), 201[7] Horvais, N., & Samozino, P. Effect of midsole geometry on foot-strike pattern and running kinematics. Footwear Science, 5(2), 2013, 81-89.

[7] Horvais, N., & Samozino, P. Effect of midsole geometry on foot-strike pattern and running kinematics. Footwear Science, 5(2), 2013, 81-89.

[8] Hreljac, A., & Marshall, R. N. Algorithms to determine event timing during normal walking using kinematic data. Journal of biomechanics, 33(6), 2000, 783-786.

[9] Kasmer, M. E., Liu, X. C., Roberts, K. G., & Valadao, J. M. Foot-strike pattern and performance in a marathon. International journal of sports physiology and performance, 8(3), 2013, 286-292.

[10] Keller, T. S., Weisberger, A. M., Ray, J. L., Hasan, S. S., Shiavi, R. G., & Spengler, D. M. Relationship between vertical ground reaction force and speed during walking, slow jogging, and running. Clinical Biomechanics, 11(5), 1996, 253-259.

[11] Larson, P., Higgins, E., Kaminski, J., Decker, T., Preble, J., Lyons, D., ... & Normile, A. Foot strike patterns of recreational and sub-elite runners in a long-distance road race. Journal of sports sciences, 29(15), 2011, 1665-1673.

[12] Lohman, E. B., Sackiriyas, K. S. B., & Swen, R. W. (2011). A comparison of the spatiotemporal parameters, kinematics, and biomechanics between shod, unshod, and minimally supported running as compared to walking. Physical Therapy in Sport, 12(4), 2011, 151-163.

[13] Masani, K., Kouzaki, M., & Fukunaga, T. Variability of ground reaction forces during treadmill walking. Journal of Applied Physiology, 92(5), 2002, 1885-1890.

[14] Nilsson, J., & Thorstensson, A. Ground reaction forces at different speeds of human walking and running. Acta Physiologica, 136(2), 1989. pp 217-227.

[15] Ogueta-Alday, A., Rodríguez-Marroyo, J. A., & García-López, J. Rearfoot striking runners are more economical than midfoot strikers. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 46(3), 2014, 580-5.

[16] Oks A., Katashev A et al. Development of Smart Sock System for Gate Analysis and Foot Pressure Control. IFMBE Proceedings, 57, 2016, pp. 466-469.

[17] Rowlands, A., Stone, M. R., & Eston, R. G. Influence of speed and step frequency during walking and running on motion sensor output. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 39(4), 2007, 716.

[18] Zatsiorky, V. M., Werner, S. L., & Kaimin, M. A.. Basic kinematics of walking. Step length and step frequency. A review. The Journal of sports medicine and physical fitness, 34(2), 1994, 109.